4x4 COURSES - CONTENT
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All courses includes a 4x4 training manual.

INTRODUCTORY 4X4
(morning session)
YOUR VEHICLE - limitations and capabilities, ground clearance, approach-, departure-, ramp, rollover angles - dynamic vs static
YOUR VEHICLE - function of off-road features when and how to use it
YOUR VEHICLE - owner's manual instructions, correct shifting procedurs
PREPARATION - fluid levels, dry grass and fires, cooling and heat exchange offroad
4WD SYSTEM - effect on slipping wheels with no or little traction
BASIC OFF-ROAD DRIVING SKILLS - ascents, descents, cross-axles, route selection,  appointing a spotter, hand signals, mirrors, soft sand driving, momentum vs traction techniques, use of clutch, driving automatic vehicles, gearing, steering, braking, accelerating
TYRE PRESSURES - recommended off-road pressures, datestamp
OFF-ROAD EQUIPMENT - tyre pressure gauge, air compressor, seednet, how to use, emergency equipment
BASIC RECOVERY - discussion basic recovery equipment, recovery points vs tie down points

4X4 DRIVING SKILLS - US254135
ENGINES (Petrol vs Diesel, Power vs Torque, Fluid levels, Cooling and 4WD, Engine braking)
TRANSMISSIONS ( Drive train components & functions, Different 4WD configurations, Windup, Shift options)
SUSPENSIONS (Chassis, Springs, Axles, Suspensions, Articulation)
CONTROL SYSTEMS (Steering, Gearing, Accelerating, Braking, ABS, EBD, HDC, Anti-Stall, Traction Control, Difflocks)
TYRES ( Types, Markings, Recommended Pressures, Repair tools, Tyre repair)
4WD VEHICLES ( Range, Capabilities, Features, Limitations, Preparations, Controls, Product related training, Tools)
BASIC OFF- & ONROAD  DRIVING SKILLS ( Regulation, Gear selection , Route selection, Ascents, Descents, Cross-axles, Side slopes, Safety first approach, Water-crossings)
BASIC RECOVERY ( Recovery & Safety Equipment, Ratings and Purpose, Recovery Points, Self & Pull Recovery)


ADVANCED 4X4 DRIVING & RECOVERY -  US254154
Recommended for the Professional 4x4 Driver
BASIC 4X4 DRIVING SKILLS COURSE CONTENT
ENGINES ( Turbo- & Super chargers, Power and Torque calculations, Cooling System)
TRANSMISSIONS ( Understanding the transmission of power and torque through each component)
DIFFLOCKS ( Open Diff, Manual difflocks, Automatic,difflocks LSD, Torsen diff, Use of lockers, traction control), 
4WD DYNAMICS ( Suspensions, Control Systems, 4WD Vehicles, onroad and off-road conditions)
TYRES & RIMS (Components & Construction, Determining Pressures for load and speed, Rims, dynamic behaviour)
TRACTION ( Traction, Rolling resistance, Slipping scenarios)
ADVANCED OFF_ROAD DRIVING TECHNIQUES ( Momentum + traction, Gravel road driving, Terrain dependant techniques - mud / sand / dunes / rock & mountains /snow, reaching vehicle limits and special driving techniques )
RECOVERY PROCEDURES ( Hand signals, Air- & Hi-lift Jack, Kinetic-, Winch Recovery, recovery forces, Safety, Special terrain dependant recovery techniques)



MASTER 4X4 DRIVING SKILLS
The Master 4x4 Driving Skills Course is the most comprehensive 4x4 off-road course you can get in Southern Africa.  Part of the course is the completion of a thesis and 50 properly logged 4x4 drives of a specified difficulty rating. The course can be completed by a beginner in 3-5 years. Experience and determined drivers will succeed within 3-6 months time. This course is recommended for the Professional 4WD Instructor, Recovery Officer and 4x4 enthusiast.

BASIC 4x4 DRIVING SKILLS CONTENT
ADVANCED 4X4 DRIVING SKILLS COURSE CONTENT
LEAD A 4X4 EXPERIENCE COURSE CONTENT
4X4 CALCULUS COURSE CONTENT
ADVANCED RECOVERY SKILLS COURSE CONTENT
TYRES & TRACTION MODULE COURSE CONTENT
MASTER DRIVING SKILLS (50 logged drives grade 4 & 5; reverse 50 m down a slope with elevated obstacles,)
TESIS ( Subject matter expertise presentation on an approved 4x4 related topic good enough to contributes to or to replace part of current study material.)
Master 4x4 Drivers will :
(a) have a systematic and planned approach to 4x4 off-road driving
(b) have the ability to be in complete control of their safety at all times
(c) have excellent situation awareness and observation
(d) have a courteous attitude to all other off-road users
(e) be able to use the controls smoothly, with an emphasis on keeping the 4x4 vehicle balanced at all times
(f) be able in using the capabilities of their vehicle to the best advantage when appropriate enabling safe, unobtrusive progress

Master 4x4 requirements - more detail



GRAVEL ROAD DRIVING 
GRAVEL ROADS (remote, uneven support, live animals, corrugations, dust, slippery surfaces, ruts & waterstreams)
DRIVER PROFILE AND SAFETY ( behavior, attitude, awareness, motivation, general skills)
TOOLS AND SPARES
EMERGENCY STOPS AT 80KM/H
SUPPORTING THEORY AND BASIC UNDERSTANDING (traction, wheelslip, sliding, braking (ABS and cadence), suspension, transmission, oversteer, understeer, rolling steer, zero steer, cornering, swerving, weather)
VEHICLE AND TRIP PREPARATION (tyre pressure, wipers, mirrors, clean headlights, etc)
25 DRIVING TECHNIQUES AND TIPS (including 4WD , swerving; correction of understeer and oversteer; ABS Braking, Cadence braking, Braking in corners)

DEFENSIVE DRIVING
DRIVER PROFILE AND SAFETY ( behavior, attitude, awareness, motivation, general skills)
MAIN CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS
HUMAN FACTORS AND LIMITATIONS
VEHICLES AND FEATURES
SPACE MANAGEMENT & ESCAPE ROUTES
ROAD CONDITIONS AND TRACTION
ACCIDENT AVOIDENCE
CORRECT EMERGENCY TECHNIQUES

RECREATIONAL 4X4 - FULL PACKAGE - Aimed at the 4x4 recreational driver
Training covers more than the TETA off-road unit standards - accreditation will be received against both standards.
GRAVEL ROAD DRIVING SKILLS COURSE CONTENT
ADVANCED 4X4 DRIVING SKILLS COURSE CONTENT
OVERLANDING SKILLS CONTENT
(the overlapping modules are merged into one course)


GPS & MAPREADING
MAPREADING ( Notations, Scale, Symbols, Datum, Contours, Vector vs Rastor, Orientation, Compass)
GPS & NAVIGATION ( Terminology, Position, Routes, Tracks, Backtrack, Vector/Rastor charts,  Errors, Navigation)


RECOVERY OFFICER - MASTER RECOVERY SKILLS 
Advanced 4x4 off-road recovery training for the Recovery Officer who wants to offer his services to public 4x4 recoveries and to become involved in 4x4 accident investigations.
RECOVERY EQUIPMENT ( Identifying, Ratings, Purpose, Inspection, Storage, Snatch block, Tree Protector, Bridles, Lanyards, Gloves , Jacks, Tools, Winch, Ropes and Straps, Drag chain)
RECOVERY PROCEDURES ( Stuck reason, Hand signals, Self & Pull recovery, Air- & Hi-lift Jack, Kinetic- & Winch Recovery, Safety Procedures , Building your path, Special terrain dependant recovery techniques)
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS ( Safety factors, WLL, MBS,  Straps, Ropes, Wire ropes, Plasma Ropes, Chain grades, Shackles, HT Bolts, Mild Steel, Welding)
RECOVERY POINTS ( Identification, Mounting of recovery points, Inspection, Strength calculation )
ADVANCED RECOVERY ( Recovery Load Calculation , Weak point identification , Recovery train setup, Fail safe operations)
SPECIAL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES (obtain the knowledge of years experience in one day)
EXPERIMENTAL TASKS (compare practical measurements with theoretical calculations)
More Information


OVERLANDING SKILLS (4WD Guide)
RADIOS & CONVOYS ( Terminology, Controls, Procedures, VHF, 29MHz, Antennas, Convoy rules & briefing, Satphone)
MAPREADING ( Notations, Scale, Symbols, Datum, Contours, Vector vs Rastor, Orientation, Compass)
GPS & NAVIGATION ( Terminology, Position, Routes, Tracks, Backtrack, Vector/Rastor charts,  Errors, Navigation)
EXPEDITION PLANNING ( Research,  Route planning & Itinerary, Safety issues, Activities, Cross-border issues )
EMERGENCIES ( First Aid, Basic survival techniques, Emergency planning, Weather, Dangers in the Wild)
4X4 LIFESTYLE ( Camping equipment, Camping, Veld Etiquette, Off-road activities, Tread Lightly, Camp site, Veld Toilet)
TRAILERS ( Towing skills - on-road + off-road, Loading, Calculation of COG, tyre pressures, maintenance, law)


LEAD A 4X4 EXPERIENCE (4WD Guide )
This course is to support the existing four wheel drive guide with essential 4x4 off-road knowledge a professional 4WD guide should have.
Note : This is not the new OGATO course accredited with CASHSSETA. We shall offer this course very soon
.
GRAVEL ROAD DRIVING SKILLS
ADVANCED 4X4 DRIVING SKILLS
4x4 RECOVERY SKILLS
OVERLANDING SKILLS
(the overlapping modules are merged into one course)


4X4 CALCULUS ( Easy physics and maths for better understanding) - required for the Master 4x4
POWER & TORQUE CALCULATIONS (Relation; Distribution through transmission to wheels)
POWER & TORQUE DISTRIBUTION ( thru open differential, ARB locker, Auto locker, Torsen diff, LSD, Traction control)
POWER & TORQUE DISTRIBUTION ( under various slipping conditions for different 4wd configurations)
TORQUE & SPEED CALCULATIONS ( different rolling diameters - tyre size + lowered pressures, odometer, speedometer)
TYRE CALCULATIONS (Circumference, Volume, Footprint, Effect of temperature, Determine tyre pressure for different loads, Determine pressure for unequal weight distribution front and rear)
APPLIED PHYSICS TO 4WD (Calculations Accelerating, Stopping distances, Skidding, Centre of Gravity, Critical angles,  Speed, Tractive force, Rolling Resistance, Effect of gravity, Momentum, Traction - 2WD vs 4WD)
MECHANICAL EFFORT & WINCHES (Snatch block and effectiveness;  Single-, double- and triple line calculations, pulling force calculations on different layers, bridle forces, bollard forces)
CALCULATIONS ON STRENGTH OF MATERIALS (Tensile-, Yield-, Bearing-, WLL calculations, Strength HT bolts, Strength Chassis, Recovery points - design and determine strength, MBS of straps, ropes and  wire rope)
CALCULATION AND APPROXIMATION OF RECOVERY LOADS (drag resistance, surface resistance , inclination resistance, line resistance, recovery forces in general - types and strength)
RECOVERY TRAIN CALCULATIONS (matching equipment ratings with setup and recovery load per vehicle GVM)
KINETIC RECOVERY CALCULATIONS (Effect of speed, loop distance, calculation of maximum kinetic forces, speed of flying recovery point, calculation of kinetic forces taking into account speed of stuck vehicle when it come lose with lowered speed of recovery vehicle)
MAPS (distance calculations, conversions, trillateration calculation - GPS)
OTHER 4x4 RELATED CALCULATIONS (radio antenna length, fuel consumption on+off-road, tow ball tests, trailer COG)
PRINCIPLES & PROPERTIES (otto & diesel cycles, properties cooling, petrol, diesel, oil, coolant)
EXPERIMENTAL TASKS (determine correct on-road tyre pressure - constant temp method, determine off-road sand pressure with minimum rolling resistance, winching experiment - practical results vs theoretical calculation, kinetic experiment - compare practical measurements with theoretical calculations)


TYRES AND TRACTION
TYRES ( Components,Construction, Types, Markings, Load and Speed indexes, Tread patterns, rotation)
TYRE DIMENSION CALCULATIONS ( Section Width, Section Height, Circumference, Volume, Footprint, Profile)
TYRE PRESSURES & CALCULATIONS (recommended pressures - terrain+speed+load dependant, effect of temperature, determine tyre pressure for different loads, determine pressure for unequal weight distribution front and rear)
TYRE & WHEEL INSPECTION (cracks, cords, cuts, wear, nuts, caps, valves, pressure, balance, alignment, leaks)
TYRE REPAIR (plugs, tyre replace, wheel change, tyre off the rim, tools, tyre repair kits)
RIMS ( types, contour, offset, notation, rim width vs tyre width, aspect ratio, wheel size calculation)
(Recommended Pressures, Repair tools, Tyre repair)
DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR (traction, rolling resistance, slipping scenarios, temperature, load and speed)
EXPERIMENTS ( tyre pressure for rocks+mud+sand, determine correct on-road tyre pressure - constant temp method, determine off-road sand pressure with minimum rolling resistance - compare practical measurements with theoretical calculations)


INSTRUCTOR INDUCTION -
If you or your company wishes to do accredited training in association with us, and complies with our basic requirements, code of conduct, policies and standards, we can authorize you to do so.
Purpose : Induction programme for 4x4 trainers and companies who wishes to do training.
Also see the 4x4 Instructors course below.

QUALIFICATIONS AND COMPETENCE (US254135, US254154, US115753, First Aid level1, Experienced Trainer )
REQUIREMENTS (Vehicle, Equipment, Classroom, 4x4 Track)
ASSESSMENT PRINCIPLES
ASSESSOR'S GUIDE (Preparation, Training and Assessment Conduct)
CODE OF CONDUCT (Trainer and Trainee)
COMPANY POLICIES
MOU (Agreement, Terms and Conditions)
REVIEW UNIT STANDARDS (US254135, US254154)


4X4 INSTRUCTOR COURSE
If you want to become a Professional 4x4 Instructor, we can offer you the right course to gain the necessary subject matter expertise. This course can be done in conjunction with the Instruction Induction course to do 4x4 training in association with the
4x4 Offroad Academy
LEVEL 1 4X4 TRAINER  -(4 days)
4X4 RECOVERY SKILLS
4X4 DRIVING SKILLS
INSTRUCTOR INDUCTION
GENERIC ASSESSOR (approx R4000 not included)
LEVEL 2 4X4 TRAINER -  (4 days)
PRE-REQUISITE : LEVEL 1 4X4 TRAINER (not included )
ADVANCED 4X4 DRIVING SKILLS
ADVANCED RECOVERY SKILLS


PROFESSIONAL 4WD GUIDE TRAINING - not accredited / only to get the 4x4 off-roading expertise

OVERLANDING SKILLS CONTENT
LEAD A 4X4 EXPERIENCE CONTENT